1) printed circuit is not allowed to cross the circuit, for the possible cross-line, you can use "drill", "around" two ways to solve. That is, let a lead from the other resistance, capacitance, the triad pin at the foot of the "drill" in the past, or from one end of a lead may be "around" in the past, in special circumstances how the circuit is very complex, to simplify the design also Allowing cross-over wires to solve cross-circuit problems.
(2) resistors, diodes, tubular capacitors and other components are "vertical", "horizontal" two installation. Vertical refers to the component body is perpendicular to the circuit board installation, welding, the advantage is to save space, horizontal refers to the component body parallel and close to the circuit board installation, welding, the advantage is the mechanical strength of the components installed better. These two different mounting elements, the printed circuit board on the component hole pitch is not the same.
(3) the same level of circuit grounding should be as close as possible, and the level of the circuit power supply filter capacitor should also be connected to the level of ground. In particular, the base of the transistor, the emitter of the grounding point can not be too far away, or because the two grounding points between the copper foil is too long will cause interference and self-excited, using this "little grounding method" circuit, Stable, easy to self-excited.
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